FRACEP, J. A. Giannini (4/15/2016)

Abstract: The object of this work was to study the feasibility of identifying a minimum set of fundamental particles that could be used to build up composite fermions and bosons that exhibit the same properties and behavior as the Standard Model (SM) fundamental particles. The spontaneous decay of most of the SM fermions suggests the possibility that they are composite in nature. The results of this arithmetically-based conceptual model identify a minimum set of only two fundamental particles (with equal and opposite mass) that combine in fractal-like configurations to form Intermediate Building Blocks (IBB). The IBBs then combine to form all of the SM fundamental particles and their anti-counterparts. These composite (bright universe) particles agree with the SM particles in mass, spin, electric charge, decay products and maximum classical radius (indicated by the scattering cross-section). Further, FRACEP identifies an equal set of dark universe particles, based primarily on its negative fundamental particle, which could represent the dark matter and energy understood to be the cause of the expansion of our (bright) universe.

This paper was presented at the American Physical Society - Division of Particles and Fields in Salt Lake City, UT (4/18/2016), The Bulletin of the American Physical Society Vol. 61, No. 6, Session T1.031.

Keywords: composite elementary fermions and bosons, negative mass, dark matter and energy, deSitter (zero mass) universe, repulsive mass and energy, preon elementary particle models.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Return to Home Page

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

FRACEP is a composite elementary particle model based on only two fundamental particles (one positive mass and one negative mass). Organized stable groupings of the two fundamental particles (the intermediate level building blocks - similar in function to the particles in the preon models) combine to form all of the Standard Model fermions (neutrinos, electron family, and quark families) and bosons (photons, gluons, weak field exchange particles, and the Higgs), as well as, their respective anti-particles.

FRACEP assumes a deSitter-type zero-mass universe (net zero mass in expanding space). Repulsion of large negative masses and large positive masses (clouds or galaxies) could contribute to the observed expansion of space. The release of energy to space with the short-lived bonding (forming, then breaking) between high energy positive and negative particles in the cosmos could be another contributor. The negative mass particles would not be directly observable with current technology. But, gravity effects could indirectly indicate their presence in the cosmos. So, FRACEP could offer an explanation of dark matter and energy that has been elusive for so long.

This paper addresses the properties of the FRACEP composite fermions and bosons (both bright and dark).

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

The word "fundamental" refers to a particle with no internal structure. The two FRACEP fundamental particles (G0p and G0m) are believed to be the smallest possible size particles. From the FRACEP perspective, all of the particles referred to as the Standard Model (fundamental) particles (the elementary fermions and bosons) are considered to be composite. Some scientist judge that of the elementary fermions only the neutrinos, the electron and the up-quark and the down-quark are fundamental - with all of the other fermions being composite.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

F. Hoyle, G. Burbidge, J.V. Narlikai, A Different Approach to Cosmology, Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK (2000).

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

The Primary Stable Groups are grouping within the FRACEP model and have no analog in the Standard Model (SM). They are configurations that do not decay because they have only positive mass (indicated by the red color for their name designation) or they have only negative mass (indicated by the blue color for their name designation). The particle names are coded to indicate their function. Note that in the SM all mass is positive.

The Momentum Components carry only mass - no spin or charge. Their designation begins with a "G" indicating they are mass carriers. The G is followed by an "X" indicating the fractal level in the structure. The X is followed by a "p" (indicating positive mass) or an "m" (indicating negative mass).

The Charge Carrier Components carry charge or mass - but no spin.

The designation of the charge carrying part begins with a "Q" indicating electric charge. The Q is followed by a "0" indicating it is the primary charge-carrying component. The 0 is followed by a "p" (indicating positive mass and negative charge - because the SM electron has negative charge - in FRACEP, the Q0p is an all positive mass component ). Or it is followed by an "m" (indicating negative mass and positive charge - because the SM anti-electron has positive charge - but in FRACEP, the Q0m is an all negative mass component).

The designation of the mass carrying part of the charge carrier components begins with an "M" indicating they carry only mass. The M is followed by a "Q" indicating they are the dominant part of the mass in the total charge carrier configuration. The Q is followed by a "p" (indicating positive mass) or an "m" (indicating negative mass).

The Spin Carrier Components carry spin or mass - but no charge.

The designation of the spin carrying part begins with a "S" indicating spin. The S is followed by a "0" indicating it is the primary spin carrying component. The 0 is followed by a "p" (indicating positive mass and positive charge - because the SM electron has positive spin - in FRACEP, the S0p is an all positive mass component). Or it is followed by an "m" (indicating negative mass and negative spin - because the SM anti-electron has negative spin - but in FRACEP, the S0m is an all negative mass component).

The designation of the mass carrying part of the spin carrier components begins with an "M" indicating they carry only mass. The M is followed by a "S" indicating they are the dominant part of the mass in the spin carrier. The S is followed by a "p" (indicating positive mass) or an "m" (indicating negative mass).

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

The "X" in the carrier designation indicates the fractal level of the grouping. For example, G22p = G0p . 922 Here, G0p is the positive mass FRACEP fundamental particle, and the G22p is a stable grouping that contains 922 G0p particles in its grouping. The R22p = 6 . G22p. It is 6 G22p particles in a stable hexagon-shaped group. For the case of G22m, G22m = G0m . 922 Here, G0m is the negative mass FRACEP fundamental particle, and the G22m is a stable grouping that contains 922 G0m particles in its grouping. The R22m = 6 . G22m. It is 6 G22m particles in a stable hexagon-shaped group.

The level 2 structure (G2p) replaces each of the G0ps in the left side of the figure with a G1p. This means that G1p has 9 G0p particles in its structure, but, the G2p has 9 G1p primary stable groupings in its structure. The level 2 structure (R2p) replaces each of the G0ps in the right side of the figure with an R1p. That means that R1p has 6 G0p particles in its hexagonal structure, but, the R2p has 6 R1p primary stable groupings - one at each apex of its hexagonal in its structure.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

The Intermediate Building Blocks Charge Carriers are groupings within the FRACEP model and have no analog in the Standard Model. That is, the SM assumes charge is an inseparable inherent characteristic of its charged particles. Of the 4 types of FRACEP charge carriers, only QGp and QGm are used to produce composite particles representing the SM particles. The designation "Q" indicates the IBB carries charge. The "G" indicates it is a charge carrier in the Bright Universe and the bulk of the mass is positive. The "p" indicates negative charge (as in the electron), and the "m" indicates positive charge (as in the positron or anti-electron). The IBBs indicated by the red color have only positive mass and do not decay. And, the IBBs indicated by the black color have some positive and some negative mass and do decay.

In addition to the Bright Universe IBBs, there are 2 Dark Universe IBBs - QDp and QDm. The QDm and QDp have no analog in the SM. The "D" indicates it is a charge carrier in the Dark Universe and the bulk of the mass is negative. The Q, p, and m have the same meaning as in the Bright Universe IBBs. Here, the IBBs indicated by the blue color have only negative mass and do not decay. And, the IBBs indicated by the black color have some positive and some negative mass and do decay.

The Q0p is the charge part of a total charge carrier. All of its component parts are composed of G0p's (the positive mass fundamental particle), but at the same time it gives the Bright Universe particles (like the electron) their negative charge. Similarly, the Q0m carries the positive charge part of a total charge carrier. It is composed of only G0m's (because of its contribution to the positive charge of particles like the anti-electron). The most massive part of the total charge carrier in the Bright Universe is the MQp which carries no charge, and is MQp = G19p + 2 G13p + 48R13p + 121R16p. Similarly, the most massive part of the total charge carrier in the Dark Universe is the MQm which carries no charge, and is MQm = G19m + 2 G13m + 48R13m + 121R16m.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

The Intermediate Building Blocks Spin Carriers are grouping within the FRACEP model and have no analog in the Standard Model. That is, the SM assumes spin is an inseparable inherent characteristic of its particles. Of the 4 types of FRACEP spin carriers, only SGp and SGm are used to produce composite particles representing the SM particles. The designation "S" indicates the IBB carries spin. The "G" indicates it is a spin carrier in the Bright Universe and the bulk of the mass is positive. The "p" indicates positive spin (as in the electron), and the "m" indicates negative spin (as in the positron or anti-electron). The IBBs indicated by the red color have only positive mass and do not decay. And, the IBBs indicated by the black color have some positive and some negative mass and do decay.

In addition to the Bright Universe IBBs, there are 2 Dark Universe IBBs - SDp and SDm. The SDm and SDp have no analog in the SM. The "D" indicates it is a spin carrier in the Dark Universe and the bulk of the mass is negative. The S, p, and m have the same meaning as in the Bright Universe IBBs. Here, the IBBs indicated by the blue color have only negative mass and do not decay. And, the IBBs indicated by the black color have some positive and some negative mass and do decay.

The S0p is the spin part of a total spin carrier. It carries a positive spin because all of the component parts are composed of G0p's (the positive mass fundamental particle). The level 2 structure replaces each of the G0p-pairs in the left side of the figure with the complete level 1 structure. This means that level 1 has 5 x 2G0p; level 2 has 5 x (5 x 2G0p). So the final S0p has 516 x 2G0p. Also, each level maintains the same structural orientation as the previous level - that is one element in the center with one element at each of the corners of the rectangle. The most massive part of the total spin carrier in the Bright Universe is the MSp which carries no spin, and is MSp = 4G16p.

The S0m is also the spin part of a total spin carrier. But in this case, it carries a negative spin because its component parts are composed of G0m's (the negative mass fundamental particle). The S0m has the same number of elements as S0p (516 x 2G0m) and its structural arrangement is identical to the structural arrangement of the S0p. That is, 5 elements - one in the center and one at each corner of the rectangle. The most massive part of the total spin carrier in the Dark Universe is the MSm which carries no spin, and is MSm = 4G16m.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

The Bright Universe first generation composite fermions are the FRACEP versions of the SM particles. Recall that the SM particles are believed to have no internal components. In this way, the FRACEP version of the fermions is different from the SM. Recall that the SM theory predicts that its particles and their corresponding anti-particles have exactly the same mass. At the current level of measurement uncertainty, this is what is observed. FRACEP differs from this - indicating that the particles and anti-particles differ slightly (within the current measurement uncertainty levels) making the difference difficult or impossible to see at this time. As with the IBBs, a red color indicates only positive mass and no decay; a blue color indicates only negative mass and no decay; and a black color indicates both some positive and some negative mass leading to decay.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

The Dark Universe first generation composite fermions are the FRACEP particles that are equal and opposite (charge, mass, spin) to the Bright Universe FRACEP fermions. There is no analog of this set of particles in the SM. The designation of each of these particles includes a subscript "d" to distinguish it from its corresponding Bright Universe fermion. These Dark Universe particles are not the anti-particles of the SM particles. In FRACEP, both the Bright Universe and the Dark Universe have both particles and anti-particles. As with the Bright Universe FRACEP particles, a red color indicates only positive mass and no decay; a blue color indicates only negative mass and no decay; and a black color indicates both some positive and some negative mass leading to decay.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

The flash of light associated with the annihilation process is interpreted here as a vibration of the fabric of space. That is, when the short-lived bond is formed, rotational energy is stored in the bonded pair. And, when the short-lived bond breaks, the energy is released into the vibration. The frequency of oscillation is hypothesized as positive for the photon, g(e-, ed+). And, the oscillation frequency is negative for the anti-photon, g*(e+, ed-). Note that the concept of negative frequency has no analog in the SM, and requires further investigation to explain its interpretation.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

The FRACEP gluon is a composite particle with three components. Each of the three components are themselves composite; and, like the photon, they bridge the Bright Universe and the Dark Universe - this time with spin (neutrino) particles. To date, there are no data interpreted as indicating internal components in the SM gluon. That, plus consistencies within the theory, is considered validation that the gluon is not a composite particle.

In the SM, both the color charge and the anti-color charge associated with the gluon are considered inherent properties of the gluon that are part of the mediation process of color exchange between two quarks. Each quark type (both up and down) is considered to carry its own color charge as an inherent property.

Like the SM version, the FRACEP gluon mediates "color exchange" between quarks. Unlike the SM, in FRACEP, only the up-quark carries its own color charge. The down-quark has color charge only because it has an up-quark component. The color charge exchange in FRACEP results when a down-quark base unit (Ds) moves from an up-quark with one color to an up-quark with a different color.


____________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

FRACEP has been constructed as a conceptual model. No higher mathematical construction (quantum mechanical or otherwise) was used. One implication of this is that it is less inclusive than mathematically-based models (like the SM, string theory, ....). Some simplifications were employed as a first order cut to see if it was possible to identify a basic (two particle set) of fundamental particles. The result is that, in the construction, the bonding mechanism between any two particles (or particle groups) has not yet been addressed. In addition, the question of the impact of binding energy (though it could be significant) is also not considered at this time. Also, equations of motion and the behavior of the potential for negative mass are still under consideration.

Because of the composite structure, as the mass of the FRACEP fermions increases, there are additional charge carrying components in the structure. Some of these are positive charge and some are negative charge. The summation of the charges (the net charge for the particle) is observed as family groups of particles in the SM (particles with the same charge but increasing mass). An analysis of the number of positive and negative charge carriers (and the mass associated with each for each individual particle) should produce a mathematical expression for total mass versus total charge. The plot shows only the total number of charge carriers - not the number of positive and negative charge carriers independently.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Because of the composite structure, the fermion mass in the FRACEP model increases because there are additional components in the structure. These additional components lead to a particle with a larger effective "classical" radius. This larger "classical" radius has no effect on the wavelength of the particle which is driven by the mass.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

More detail can be found at http://www.jagnetbooks.org

Email: jag.cck@gmail.com

____________________________________________________________________________________________________