RABMEC, J. A. Giannini (9/21/2012)

 

 

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APPENDIX F

COMPARISON OF THE RABMEC TIMELINE WITH THE NEW CHRONOLOGY OF DAVID ROHL

††††††††††††††

What is Rohlís New Chronology?

 

The traditional biblical chronology is based on the genealogies of the Hebrew patriarchs and kings in the Bible.However, it is well known that the historical record offers little support for the derived dates of the notable events.

 

David Rohl (1) modified the traditional chronology dates based on astronomical considerations stated in the Bible and non-biblical historical records that support the biblical events but indicate the traditional dates are misplaced in time.His New Chronology produces a better fit between the Bible and the historical record.

 

The RABMEC (2) chronology developed in this work provides a different modification of the traditional chronology.It agrees with Rohl in some respects and differs in others.

 

The defining assumption in RABMEC is the length of the Babylonian Exile.The traditional chronology and Rohlís chronology assume the Exile length is 70 years as given by Jeremiahís prophesy.Instead, RABMEC uses Danielís prophesy, "a time, times, and a half".It then determines the Exile length based on comparisons of biblical kings and events with named Babylonian and Egyptian kings.

 

One consequence of this is that RABMEC pushes the beginning of the Exile to the time of Nebuchadnezzar I rather than the second of that name as is traditionally assumed.This pushes the biblical Flood back about 1000 years from the traditional date to 3113 BC.This new Flood date is the same as the date David Rohl determined.

 

Another consequence is to push the Exodus further back in time to 2100 BC which differs from Rohlís 1447 BC date.The two dates are supported by different eruption events and also by different dating of an historical Egyptian papyrus.

 

What does this appendix do?

 

Following Rohlís lead, I take the position that many events critical to the biblical timeline are associated with natural catastrophes.This appendix compares the RABMEC, Rohl and traditional chronologies by identifying the recognized volcanic eruptions and impacts that are closest to the catastrophic ďacts of GodĒ in each timeline. (See Table F.1).The traditional timeline is referred to as the Standard TimeLine (STL).

 

The comparisons are based primarily on three works.Palmer (3) provides a detailed discussion of catastrophism and natural catastrophes.Lewis (4) discusses comets and meteors in detail and the cycles of Earth impacts. And Oppenheimer (5) presents details of the most devastating volcanic eruptions that had a global impact.

 

In addition to the biblical timeline, there are comparisons of the Egyptian dynastic timeline (Table F.2) and the Sumerian/Babylonian dynastic timeline (Table F.3).

 

In the three tables below, the numbers in ( ) indicate the difference in date from RABMEC.At the bottom of the tables are average differences for several temporal ranges.The averages are not meant as statistically significant measures.They are simply indicative of trends showing where there is general agreement with RABMEC.

 

Table F.1 This shows a comparison of RABMEC BC dates for biblical events with Rohl and the STL. The numbers in [ ] indicate the relative years since the birth of Adam.

Biblical Event

RABMEC

Rohl (1)

STL (6)

Anno Mundi

Egypt. beginning of world

5538

R&P flood event(7,8)

 

 

Adam birth

 

4769[0]

5375[0] (-606)

After R&P flood

3950[0] (819)

Noah birth

3713[1056]

3713[1662] (0)

2894[1056] (819)

Flood

3113[1656]

Wooley debris (9) & Impact ~3114 (10)

3113[2262] (0)

Eruption 3119 (11) &

Impact ~3114+? (10)

2294[1656] (819)

Impact 2300 (13)

Abraham birth

2823[1946]

1900[3475] (932)

2001[1949] (822)

Abraham sojourn in Egypt

No name

Divided kingdom

Pharaoh Khety IV

10th dyn,1876-1847

Phar. Ammenemes I (14)

12th dyn, c.1985-1955

Isaac birth

2723[2046]

1842[3533] (881)

1901[2049] (822)

Sodom & Gomorrah

 

~2711

Impact ~2700+? (15)

1830[3545] (881)

Eruption ~1830 (17)

~1889[2049] (822)

Impact ~1900 (18)

Joseph birth

2572[2197]

1696[3679] (876)

1750[2200] (447)

Or 1832[2118] (365)

Josephís pharaoh- dynasty

 

Astronomical data(1, page 168)

Usaphasis-1st

2475-2449

No data

Amenemhat III-12th 1678-1634

Good data agree.

No name-12th

Dyn. 1750-1650 (14)

Or Ammenemes III-

14th1854-1808 (14)

Poor data agree.

Joseph death

2462[2307]

1617[3758] (845)

1640[2310] (824)

Exodus,

Pharaoh

 

Ipuwer Papyrus date (19)

(6th dyn or 13th dyn)

2103[2666]

Phiops, 6th dyn

Eruption ~2100 (20)

date 1 agreement

1447[3928] (656)

Dudimose, 13th

Eruption 1500+? (22)

date 2 agreement

1280[2670] (823) (6)

Ramesses I, 19th (14)

Impact ~1200+? (23)

Or 1496[2454] (607) (6)

Tuthmosis I, 18th (14)

Eruption ~1500+? (23)

Joshua

Jericho destruction

 

Eclipse date (1, page 243)

2058 [2711]

Eruption &Impact 2055+37 (20)

no data

1406[3969] (652)

Eruption ~1400 (24)

 

Good date agree.

1000 year

gap in archaeology

1240[2710] (818) (6)

? Impact ~1200 (23)

No data

Or 1456[2494] (620) (6)

Eruption 1400 (24)

No data

King David

1667[3102]

1011[4364] (656)

1060[2890] (607)

Babylonian Exile begins

Babylonian king

1204[3565]

Nebuchadnezzar I

599[4776] (605)

Nebuchadnezzar II

606[3346] (598)

Nebuchadnezzar II (25)

Babylonian Exile ends

539[4230]

539[4836] (0)

536[3412] (-3)

------------

------------

------------

------------

avg. diff. Total

 

490.5

695.2

avg. diff. Adam-Flood

 

-202

818

diff. Flood

 

0

819

avg. diff. Abram-Jericho

 

817.6

768.3

avg. diff. David-Exile

 

630.5

602.5

Exile length

665

60

70


 

Table F.2 ††This shows a comparison of RABMEC BC dates for the historic Egyptian dynasties with Rohl and the STL.The blank fields indicate unavailable data.

Dynasty

RABMEC

(2012)

(1998) (14)

James

Rohl (1)

(2002)

Early Dynastic

1

2638

3100 (-462)

2770 (-132)

2

2484

2890 (-406)

2670 (-186)

Old Kingdom

3

2454

2686 (-232)

2554 (-100)

4-5

2381

2613 (-232)

2499 (-118)

6

2254

2345 (-91)

2273 (-19)

Middle Kingdom

7-8

2090

2181 (-91)

2073 (17)

9-11

2034

2160 (-126)

2018 (16)

12

1899

1985 (-86)

1803 (96)

13-14

1739

1795 (-56)

1632 (107)

15-17

1555

1650 (-95)

1439 (116)

New Kingdom

18

1452

1550 (-98)

1202 (250)

19

1244

1295 (-51)

962 (177)

20

1139

1186 (-47)

865 (274)

21

1023

1069 (-46)

842 (190)

22-24

909

945 (-36)

822 (87)

Late Period

25

729

747 (-18)

769 (-40)

26

647

664 (-17)

656 (-9)

27

528

525 (+3)

 

28-29

404

404 (0)

 

30

378

380 (-2)

 

Estate Period

31

341

342 (-1)

 

------------

------------

------------

------------

avg. diff. for dyn 1-6

 

(-248.6)

(-111)

avg. diff. for dyn 6-17

 

(-90.8)

(43.4)

avg. diff. for dyn 6-26

 

(-66.0)

(95.5)

avg. diff. for dyn 6-31

 

(-50.5)

(95.5)

†††††††††


 

Table F.3 This shows a comparison of RABMEC BC dates for the Sumerian/Babylonian dynasties with Rohl and the STL.The blank fields indicate unavailable data.

Dynasty

RABMEC

Rohl (1)

STL (25)

 

Eridu

2k, 5538-5028

 

 

 

Badtibura

3k, 5027-4170

 

 

 

Akash

6k, 4169-4070

pre-flood ? Ė 3112 (?)

 

 

Kish III

9k, 4070-3928

1k, 2192-2183(1878)

 

 

Kish IV

7k, 3928-3437

7k, 2182-2052(1800)

 

 

Erech I

1k, 3437-3113

1k, 3000-? (437)

 

 

Flood

3113

3113(0)

 

 

Erech I

(conít)

11k, 3113-2879

Gilgamesh 3039

Lugalkidul 2915

From Kish 1B, 10k,

3112-2398(1)

 

Gil. 2400(639)

Lug. 2380(535)

11k, 3000-2249(113)

 

3k, 2248-2130(631)

Erech II

3k, 2879-2869

 

 

Ur I

4k, 2869-2753

Elulu 2814

5k, 2365-2189(504)

 

Elulu 2421 (393)

 

Awan

3k, 2753-2747

 

 

 

Kish II

8k, 2747-2681

Uruka-Gina 2684

8k,2397-2193(350)

 

Ur.-Gina 2351(333)

 

ErechIII/Agade

11k, 2681-2484

9k, 2129-1937(552)

2340-2154(341)

 

Erech IV

5k, 2484-2454

5k, 1940-1911(544)

 

 

Gutium

21k, 2454-2363

Tiri-gan 2363

21k, 2000-1908(454)

 

Tiri-gan 2130(233)

 

Erech V/Ur II

5k, 2363-2247

5k, 1910-1785(453)

2112-2004(243)

 

Isin I

14k, 2247-2044

15k, 1805-1507(442)

2017-1794(230)

 

1st Babylonian

11k, 2044-1744

Hammurabi 2004

11k, 1667-1362(377)

Hammurabi 1565(439)

1894-1595(150)

Hammurabi 1792(212)

 

1st Sealand

1886-1518

 

 

 

Kassite

19k, 1518-1310

K.-Enlil II 1410

Marduc 1325

 

1374-1155(144)

K.-Enlil II 1263(147)

Marduc 1171(203)

 

Chaos

Chaos 1310-1237

 

 

 

Mixed

1255-729

 

1025-979(230)

 

Isin II

1237-1105

Nebuchadnezzar I 1208

 

1157-1026(80)

Neb. I 1125(83)

 

Assyrian

732-626

Tiglath-P III 729

 

731-626(1)

Tiglath-P III 729(0)

 

Chaldean

626-538

Nebuchadnezzar II 605

 

625-539(1)

Neb. II 605(-1)

 

------------

------------

------------

------------

 

avg.diff

flood-Erech I

 

(0.5)

(639)

 

avg.diff

flood-1st Babylon

 

(367.7 )

(321.0)

 

avg.diff

1st B.-Chaldean

 

 

(91.2)

 

 

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References/Notes

 

1D. Rohl, From Eden to Exile, The 5000-year History of the People of the Bible, Greenleaf Press, Lebanon, TN (2002)

 

2J.A. Giannini, Revised Ancient Biblical and Mid-East Chronology (RABMEC) Timeline, Chapter 2www.jagnetbooks.org (2012)

 

3T. Palmer, Perilous Planet Earth, Catastrophes and Catastrophism through the Ages, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK (2003)

 

4J.S. Lewis, Rain of Iron and Ice, Perseus Publishing, US (1997)

 

5C. Oppenheimer, Eruptions That Shook the World, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK (2011)

 

6W.C. Martin, These Were Godís People, A Bible History, The Southwestern Company, Nashville, TN (1966)

 

7W. Ryan and W. Pitman, Noah's Flood, the New Discoveries about the Event That Changed History, Simon and Shuster, (1998)

 

8According to Ryan and Pittman, the Black Sea flood event was the result of a breach in the ice dam separating the ocean from the fresh water lake.This event was likely the result of sudden but prolonged climate change.According to Oppenheimer (5, page 355) at around this time, there were several major eruptions that would have had a global impact.Among them are: 5480 BC, Kikai, Ryuku Islands (Me 7.2); 5677 BC, Mazama,Oregon (Me 7.1); 6000 BC, Menengai, Kenya (Me 6.9).

 

9L. Wooley, and P.R.S. Moorey, Ur of the Chaldees: A Revised and Updated Edition ofSir Leonard Wooley's Excavations at Ur, Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY (1982)

 

10D. Steel, Rogue Asteroids and Doomsday Comets, John Wiley & Sons, NY (1995)

 

11 Rohl (1, page 48) describes the effects of a massive volcanic eruption in 3119 BC that caused global climate shifts.Fierce winters and cooler summers allowed ice buildup resulting in drought conditions in Mesopotamia.Toxic dense cloud cover resulted in acidification of the water supply.Final clearing of the atmosphere took about 6 years and the final warming permitted ice melting that lead to the massive flood conditions in 3113 BC.Kropelin (12) describes similar conditions in North Africa at the same time.Oppenheimer (5, page 355) identifies the massive eruption of Black Peak, Alaska (Me 6.5) at ~3000 BC lending credence to the global nature of the climate devastation.

 

12 S. Kropelin, et al., Climate-Driven Ecosystem Succession in the Sahara: The Past 6000 Years, Science, vol. 320, 9 May 2008, p 765

 

13 Palmer (3, page 120, 340) relates that Schaeffer (1898-1982) concluded that the Earth suffered wide-spread devastation on at least five occasions beginning ~2300 BC.He identified the other events at ~2100 BC, ~1600 BC, 1365 BC and ~1200 BC.The source of the impact was not identified.

 

14 T.G.H. James, A Short History of Ancient Egypt, The Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, MD (1995)

 

15 Palmer (3, page 342) relates that Bruce Masse indicated at least 20 impacts over the last 6000 years resulting in global destruction.He identified the most significant at ~2800 BC.Clube and Napier (3, page 339, and 16) relate that Enke comet has an Earth-crossing orbit every ~20,000 years.Two identified breakups (~7500 BC and ~2700 BC) likely produced impacts around those times.Lewis (4, page 48) indicated that the Enke comet was responsible for the two Taurrid meteor streams producing destructive impacts ~2700 BC and in the 5th century AD.He notes the Taurrid meteor stream was responsible for the particularly destructive Tunguska impact in Siberia in 1908 AD.

 

16 V. Clube and B. Napier, The Cosmic Serpent, Universe Pub, (1982)

 

17 Rohl (1, page 121) and Palmer (3, page 340) describe the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah as the result of a volcanic eruption from the geological rift extending along the Jordan Valley.Rohl identifies the time as 1830 BC.The exact location of both cities is uncertain but generally believed to be along the Dead Sea.

 

18 Lewis (4, page 35) describes the exploration of John Philby in 1932 in the central Arabian Peninsula of Rubí al Khali where he found craters he interpreted as volcanic.Discovery of an iron meteorite fragment later confirmed the impact origin which dated to ~1900 BC.No meteorite fragments have been found in the Dead Sea area.But it is conceivable that a meteor stream could have resulted in an impact into the sea at the same time.

 

19 According to Roger Henry (Synchronized Chronology, Algora Publishing, 2003), the Papyrus Ipuwer is a seventeen page document known as ďAdmonitions of an Egyptian SageĒ.Several parts are missing and almost every page is fragmentary.According to Wikipedia, the document in the Leiden Museum is a copy made around the 18th dynasty (ca. 1550-1295 BC).The time of its original composition is debated.Some say as early as the 6th dynasty (2254-2090 BC RABMEC) and some say as late as the 13th dynasty (ca. 1802-1649 BC STL, 1632-1439 BC Rohl).The papyrus describes catastrophes that have a striking resemblance to the plagues and conditions of the biblical Exodus.Scholars debate whether it is a description of current events or historical reference.

 

20 Palmer (3, page 210, 340, and 12) indicates Schaefferís second major impact in the early Bronze Age was ~2100 BC.Oppenheimer (5, page 355) indicates that a volcanic eruption in 2100 BC at Veniaminof, Alaska (Me 6.7) would have had a global climate impact that could have contributed to the Exodus conditions.Weiss (21) describes archaeological and soil-stratigraphic data showing climate collapse of third millennium in Mesopotamia, the Aegean, Egypt, Palestine and the Indus supporting the global impact of the eruption.At 2200 BC a marked increase in aridity and wind circulation subsequent to a volcanic eruption induced abrupt climate change effects.Climate effects were visible in Greenland ice cores and Anatolian tree-ring records beginning in 2200 BC with reduced and irregular ring growth continuing thru 2055-2043 + 37 BC.A further support for the 2100 BC date comes from one dating of the Ipuwer Papyrus (19) in the 6th dynasty.

 

21 H. Weiss, et al., The Genesis and Collapse of Third Millennium North Mesopotamian Civilization, Science, vol. 261, 20 August, 1993, p995

 

22 Rohl (1, page 206) identifies the departure from Egypt as taking place in 1447 BC.His exit date is tied to Dudimose, the 13th dynasty pharaoh whom he dates as 1450-1446 BC.A support of this pharaoh is one dating of the Ipuwer Papyrus (19) in the 13th dynasty.The climate effects associated with the Exodus can be associated with an eruption or an impact.Oppenheimer (5, page 355) identifies the nearest volcanic eruption with a global climate impact at Santorine, Greece (5, page 230) 1500 BC or as late as 1600 BC.Fallout from the eruption is seen to the northeast of Turkey and to the south in North Africa.Oppenheimer notes that uncertainty in the atmospheric carbon-14 makes dating around this time particularly difficult.He also notes that this eruption coincides with end of Minoan 1B (1490-1476 or 1425-1420). Rohlís 1447 BC Exodus date should be close to the eruption dating uncertainty.

 

23 According to Martin (6), the traditional date of the Exodus is a matter of debate, as recent as 1280 BC or as late as 1496 BC.The 1496 BC date is consistent with the Ipuwer Papyrus 18th dynasty date and can be associated with one of the Santorini eruption dates.Like Rohlís Jericho event, the STL Jericho date of 1456 BC is consistent with the other eruption ~1400 BC.†† The other STL Exodus date 1280 BC and its companion Jericho 1240 BC date are more difficult to account.Schaefferís ~1200 BC impact event (13) can only account for one of the events unless it was more extended or other evidence of catastrophes becomes obvious.As it stands, 1500 BC Santorini eruption (22) seems to support the Ipuwer Papyrus date for the Exodus better than the 1280 BC Exodus date.

 

24 Rohl (1, page 237) identifies the events at Jericho as taking place in 1406 BC, 40 years after the Exodus.He notes that archaeological evidence for the 40-year wandering in the desert is lacking.Oppenheimer (5, page 355) identifies the nearest volcanic eruption with a global climate impact in ~1400 BC at Witori, Papua New Guinea (Me 6.5).The distance from the eruption site seems large and except for the global climate effects appears an unlikely correlation.However, eruptions of such magnitude can be observed over great distances.The Tambora (5, page 298) eruption in Indonesia in 1812 AD was heard over 2600 km away in Sumatra.Thick black clouds completely blocking the sun covered the sky as far as 600 km away for two days after the eruption.And tremors were felt over 360 km.Of course the distance that any eruption is felt is a detail of the nature of the eruption and the geological environment of the volcano.Rohlís Jericho destruction date of 1406 BC should be within the eruption dating uncertainty.

 

25 G.P. Verbrugghe and J.M. Wickersham, Bosseros and Manetho Introduced and Translated: Native Traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, Univ. of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor (2001); A.L. Oppenheimer, Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization, Univ. of Chicago Press (1977)

 

 

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