RABMEC, J. A. Giannini (7/25/2012)

 

 

2. THE REVISED ANCIENT BIBLICAL AND MID-EAST (RABMEC) TIMELINE

 

It is the objective here to go back to the beginning and establish a calibrated timeline to the "creation of man". If one accepts the concept of creation as the beginning of awareness (as is consistent with ancient thought), we begin our timeline with the oral tradition of the earliest cultures (which was later recorded). The Sumerian (claimed to be the initiators of writing), the Egyptian, and the Hebrew (biblical) peoples are the prominent three that are intrinsically intertwined.

 

The discussion begins with the Hebrew tradition because it is the most complete genealogy from the beginning to the historic period (the birth of Jesus Christ). The biblical genealogies for the Hebrew patriarchs include their age at death and their ages at the time of the birth of their offspring. The Bible also includes the succession of kings and their length of reigns. Using this it is possible to determine the total number of years from the creation to the beginning of the Babylonian Exile of the Jews, but the absolute (BC) date of the beginning is unspecified.

 

The end of the Exile and the return to Jerusalem begins with the re-building of the Temple by Cyrus in 539 BC, so a calibrated timeline from the beginning is possible if we know the length of the Exile. However, the length of the Exile, as predicted by the prophets, Jeremiah and Daniel, has some question associated with it. It is 70 yrs according to Jeremiah, or, "a time, times, and a half" according to Daniel (which some interpret as 490 yrs).

 

The mytho-historical tradition described in the Bible encompasses several periods: (1) the time from Adam to the Flood and Noah; (2) the time from Noah to Abraham; (3) the time from Abraham to King David; (4) the time from King David to the Babylonian exile; and (5) the time from the exile to the birth of Jesus. Within the Bible, genealogies of the generations of the Jews provide a potential relative timeline that can connect the biblical creation with modern (AD) times only when the length of time of the Babylonian Exile is known.

 

Section 2.1 provides the details of the genealogies. We treat the Exile length as ambiguous to produce a relative timeline. Following the relative timeline, Section 2.2 produces a calibrated timeline. In this section, correlating the kings of Israel with the Egyptian and Babylonian kings mentioned in the Bible resolves the question of the Exile length. This allows a completely calibrated timeline back to the birth of Adam. Note that the Babylonian king line is an extension of the Sumerian king line that ruled in the same region.

 

2.1 The Relative Timeline Of The Biblical Jews

 

2.2. The Calibration Of The Ancient Timeline

 

2.3 References for Chapter 2

 

Return to The Table of Contents

 

Return to Preface

 

.

 

 

2.1 The Relative Timeline Of The Biblical Jews

 

The story begins with the Jews because the Bible(1) provides the creation story in Chapter 1 of Genesis. Time is defined in "days" to organize the creation events. This story is the basis of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

 

Note that the ancient Hebrew word for day had more than one meaning. It referred to a 24 hour period from sunset to sunset (a standard day); but, it also referred to an unspecified period of time which could be many years in length. This definition of the word "day" has implications for the mythological portion of the new timeline and is considered later in Section 4.3.

 

According to the story, God created Adam on the sixth day. After that, He rested from His creation activities. He gave Adam a mate, Eve, and placed them both in the Garden of Eden to tend it and be master of the animals. Chapter 2 in Genesis describes the location of Eden.

7. And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed

into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.

8. And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden;

10. And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it

parted, and became into four heads.

11. The name of the first is Pi'-son; that is it which compasseth the whole

land of Hav'-i-lah, where there is gold; ...

13. And the name of the second river is Gi'-hon; the same is it that

compasseth the whole land of E-thi-o'-pi-a.

14. And the name of the third river is Hid'-de-kel; that is it which goeth

toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Eu-phra'-tes.

15. And the Lord God took the man, and put him in the garden of Eden to

dress it and to keep it.

 

The location of Eden has long been a matter of debate. Assuming Eden refers to the area of the Fertile Crescent, where agriculture is believed to have begun, the area spans the arc of territory running northward from Egypt through Palestine and the Levant, through Anatolia to the hills between Iran and the south Caspian to enclose the river valleys of Mesopotamia.

 

This area is bounded on the west by the Nile (is that the Gihon), and includes the Tigress (which heads east to Assyria) and the Euphrates both of which come out of the Persian Gulf. It is interesting to note that the ancestral city of the Patriarch Abraham is Ur located at the junction of the Tigress and Euphrates rivers.

 

The location of the other river is not obvious. There is another river, the Dylan, which splits from the Tigress above Babylon and heads in the direction of the Caspian Sea. Also, there is no identified junction for the Nile with the Euphrates; however it is not impossible to imagine there might have been a small tributary that split from the Euphrates and heads to the Mediterranean. The shoreline from there to the Nile could be considered one long river that encompasses Ethiopia.

 

2.1.1 Period 1: Adam to the Noah Flood (Genesis 5:)

 

As the story continues, Adam and Eve disobey God's command and are forced to leave Eden. Time is now recorded as relative year from the creation of Adam. The Bible says little about the children of Adam and Eve. It tells of their son Cain killing their son Able. After that, Cain leaves for other parts. Their third son, Seth, is the one that continues the line of Adam through the nine generations to the birth of Noah. The genealogy in Figure 2.1 shows there are 1056 years from the creation of Adam to the birth of Noah. We obtain this by adding the ages of the fathers at the birth of their sons.

 

 

 

Figure 2.1 This is the genealogy of Adam to the Flood. From the birth of Adam to the birth of Noah was 1056 yrs. Noah was 600 years old at the time of the Flood. Thus from birth of Adam to the Flood was 1656 years. The bold number in brackets is the age of the father at the birth of the son. For example, Adam was 130y when Seth was born.

 

 

Based on the genealogies, from the time Adam and Eve left Eden to the coming of the Flood was 1656 years. At this point, no BC date is associated with the year of the Flood. This correlation is established later when the Exile length is determined. Table 2.1 shows the time order from Adam to the Flood in years relative to Adam's birth.

According to Genesis (Genesis 7: -8:), Noah was 600 years when the flood occurred. The water depth rose to 15 cubits (22.5 feet). It rained for 40 days confining Noah to the Ark for 1 year when it came to rest on Mt. Ararat in Turkey off the Black Sea. Most scholars recognize a connection between the biblical stories and Sumerian myths. This is particularly true of the Flood story.

 

The Bible notes that Abraham came from Ur, an important Sumerian city. It is not clear when the children of Adam moved to Ur, but the connection between the Hebrew line and the Sumerian line is strong. Because of this, it is important to consider the Sumerian connection as it relates to the new timeline before proceeding with the biblical genealogies.

 

 

Table 2.1. This shows the relative year (RY) of events from Adam to the Flood is in column 1.

because of the Sumerian connection, the last column lists the concurrent Sumerian dynasties and

the placement of the Sumerian flood event from the Kish Chronicles. The Sumerian King List in

Appendix A shows the prominent Sumerian kings during the time from Adam to the Flood.

 

Year

RY

Adam Line

(age at birth of son in yrs)

Sumerian King

(length of reign yrs)

0

Adam birth

 

130

235

325

395

460

600

 

Seth birth (Adam is 130y)

Enos birth (Seth is 105y)

Cainan birth (Enos is 90y)

Mahalaleel birth (Cainan is 70y)

Jarad birth (Mahalaleel is 65y)

Adam 600 begins reign as Unzi

 

 

 

 

 

Akshak dynasty, 6 kings (99y)

King Unzi is 1st of this dynasty

622

687

699

Enoch birth (Jarad is 162y)

Methuselah birth (Enoch is 65y)

 

 

Kish dynasties, 16 kings (633y)

874

930

1056

Lemech birth (Methuselah is 187y)

Adam death (930y old at death)

Noah birth (Lemech is 182y)

 

1332

 

Erech dynasties, 15 kings (568y)

King Meskiaggasher, son of sun god, reign ends at Flood

1556

Shem birth (Noah is 500y)

 

1656

Noah Flood (Noah is 600y)

Sumerian flood

 

 

 

The ancient Sumerians possessed one of the earliest, if not the earliest, advanced civilizations of the human race. They possessed the earliest known writing, and they constructed detailed lists of their kings and their lengths of reign. The most famous of the lists, "The Kish Chronicle", begins with the god/kings and the fantastic number of years for their reigns, followed by reigns of more normal length with some ambiguity in arrangement and some gaps.

 

In 1929, the historian, L. A. Waddell(2) developed a hypothesis that the ancient Egyptians and Hindu/Arians, both of whom kept meticulous lists of their own kings, shared a common royal king-line with the Sumerians. Collecting data worldwide, comparing the language phonology (pronunciation of sounds) and monument inscriptions, myth and king's lists, Waddell was able to order the ambiguous groups of Sumerian kings and fill in the missing gaps. In addition, he proposes that Unzi was the first Sumerian king of the god/kings line. In the context of the Bible, Unzi and Adam were the same person.

 

The Sumerian kings' lists also record the event of a flood and the years from Unzi to that flood. Since the time from Adam to the biblical Flood was 1656 years, and the time from King Unzi to the Sumerian flood was also 1656 years. Using Waddell's assumption that Adam and King Unzi were the same person, this implies that the Sumerian flood and the Biblical Flood were the same event. The actual fact of the Flood, from a scientific point of view, is discussed in Chapter 5.

 

2.1.2 Period 2: The Noah Flood to Abraham (Genesis 10: -11:)

 

This second period between Noah's Flood and Abraham takes us thru the dispersal of the Jews throughout the Mid-East region. The children of man (Adam's line) all spoke a single language before the dispersal began(Genesis 11:). As the survivors of the Flood, Noah and his three sons, Japheth, Ham and Shem, were the children of Adam that repopulated the region.

 

The Bible indicates that the line of Noah after the Flood produced the rulers in the region. The sons of Japheth became the Isles of Gentiles. The sons of Ham became the people of Cannan.

 

The most noted offspring of Ham was Nimrod. Nimrod was the son of Cush, who was the son of Ham. The Bible refers to the line of Nimrod as the kings (Genesis 10:8-10). It reports that Nimrod established the kingdoms of Babel, Erech, Acad and Calnehin Shinai. These are the dominant cities of Sumer. Asshur, the son of Nimrod, built Nineveh, Rehoboth, Calan and Resen. The sons of Shem became the direct line to the Hebrew nation.

 

Figure 2.2 shows the genealogy of the line of Noah to the birth of Abram. The figure shows that from the birth of Noah to the birth of Abram was 890 years. Since, Noah was 600 years old at the time of the Flood, from Flood to Abram's birth was 290 years.

 

As the story continues, Terah was commanded by God to take his son Abram, Abram's wife Sarai and Teran's grandson Lot and moved from Ur to Canaan. They only got as far as Haran where Terah died.

 

 

 

Figure 2.2 This is the genealogy of Noah to the birth of Abram. From the birth of Noah to the birth of Abram was 890 yrs. The bold number in brackets is the age of the father at the birth of the son. For example, Noah was 500y when Shem was born.

 

 

From there, God commanded Abram to take Sarai and Lot on to Canaan to his promised land (even though the Canaanites already lived there). Once there Lot and his wives and daughters took the land of Jordan; and Abram and his family took the land of Canaan (all the land between the river in Egypt and the Euphrates).

When considering the biblical genealogies, in this second period, we are again faced with the extreme ages of the line from Noah to Abram (Abraham). Just before the Flood, God set the lifetime of Man to 120 years. According to the Bible (Genesis 6:1-3) , "...The sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose. And the Lord said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh; yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years...".

Table 2.2 shows the time order from Noah's birth to Abram's birth in years relative to Adam's birth. The table shows this limiting of the lifespan of man. There is a gradual decrease in the ages at death in Noah's descendants from 960 year to 250 years by the time of Abram's father. This decrease continues further in the later periods after Abram.

There is some question among biblical scholars about the age of Terah at Noah's birth. Although most agree on 70 years, some speculate he was 130 years. In the timeline, 70 years is used.

 

 

 

Table 2.2. This shows the relative year (RY) of events from Noah's birth to Abram's birth is

in column 1.

Year

RY

Noah Line

(age at birth of son in yrs)

Sumerian King

(length of reign yr)

1056

Noah birth

 

1556

Shem birth (Noah is 500y)

 

1656

Noah Flood (Noah is 600y)

Arphaxed birth (Shem is 100y)

Sumerian flood

1691

Saleh birth (Arphaxed is 35y)

 

1721

Eber birth (Saleh is 30y)

 

1755

Peleg birth (Eber is 34y)

 

1785

Reu birth (Peleg is 30y)

 

1817

Serug birth (Reu is 32y)

 

1847

Nahor birth (Serug is 30y)

 

1876

Terah birth (Nahor is 29y)

 

1900

 

Ur dynasties, 13 kings (188y)

1946

Abram birth (Terah is 70y)

 

 

 

 

2.1.3 Period 3: Abraham to King David

 

During the 3rd period, Abram has a son Ishmael by Sarah's Egyptian maid and a son Isaac by his wife Sarah. Out of jealousy, Sarah drives Ishmael and his mother into the desert and Ishmael's sons establish the ruling dynasties in the land between Egypt and Assyria (Genesis 16:16).

 

God promises Abram at 99 years (Genesis 17:2) that his son Isaac (Genesis 21:5) would establish the Hebrew line and the slavery in Egypt that would last for 400 year" (Genesis 15:13). At this time, Abram's name is changed to Abraham. Isaac's son Jacob (Genesis 25:26) (younger twin of Esau) steals the father's blessing and continues the Hebrew line by his 12 sons.

 

Because of jealousy, Jacob's sons sold their brother Joseph when he was 17 years old (Genesis 41:46, 45:6, 47:28, 50:22-26). Joseph was taken to Egypt as a slave where he displays a talent for interpreting dreams. His talent pleases the Pharaoh and he becomes rich, powerful and a governor in Egypt at 30.

 

After seven years of plenty and two of the next seven years of famine, Joseph is reunited with his brothers and Jacob who is 130 years. At the time of the reunion, Jacob brought with him his household of 72 people (Exodus 1:). Jacob dies in Egypt (Genesis 47:28), but his bones are later returned to the Promised Land at the Exodus.

 

 

Figure 2.3 This is the genealogy of the birth of Abram to the birth of Moses. The bold number in brackets is the age of the father at the birth of the son. For example, Abram was 90y when Isaac was born. Isaac was 60y when Jacob was born.

 

 

After Joseph and all that knew him died, a new Pharaoh feels threatened by the children of Israel (Jacob's new name by God) and they are all made slaves. The time in Egypt began with Jacob's entry into Egypt and lasted until Moses led the people out to freedom. The book of Exodus says the time the children of Israel dwelt in Egypt was 430 years before they were freed (Exodus 12:40-41).

According to the Bible at the time of the Exodus, the total number of men (20 years and older) was 625,550 males (Numbers 1: - 3:). These people included the 12 tribes (descendants of the 12 sons of Jacob). The count for each tribe is: the tribe of Reuben (46500 men), for Simeon (59300 men), for Gad (45650 men), for Judah (74600 men), for Issachar (54400 men), for Zebulum (57400 men), for Joseph (40500 men), for Manasseh (32200 men), for Benjamin (35400 men), for Dan (62700 men), for Asher (41500 men), for Naphtah (53400 men), and for Levi (22000 men).

 

Figure 2.3 shows the genealogies (1 Chronicles 6:1 and Exodus 6:16-20) for this period from Abram's birth to the birth of Moses. From the birth of Abram to the birth of Jacob was 150 years. The Bible implies Jacob was about 70 years old when he started having children, but his exact age at the birth of Levi is not specified. Further, the exact number of years from the birth of Levi to the birth of Moses in not specified. For this reason, the timeline requires that we work backward from King David to determine the year the Exodus began. This is because the Exodus is determined relative to when King David began the Temple.

 

 

Table 2.3. This shows the relative year (RY) of events from Abram's birth to the beginning

of the reign of King David is in column 1.

Year

RY

Abram Line

(ages yr)

Sumerian King

(length of reign yr)

1946

Abram birth (Terah is 70y)

 

2046

Isaac birth (Abram is 100y)

 

2088

 

Erech dynasties, 57 kings (637y)

2106

Jacob birth (Isaac is 60y)

 

2121

Abram death (175y)

 

2131

 

Manishtushu (=Menes, 1st king

of the 1st Egypt Dyn)

2182

Levi birth (Jacob is ~76y)

 

2184

Judah birth (Jacob is ~78y)

 

2197

Joseph birth (Jacob is 91y)

 

2214

Joseph sold (17y)

 

2226

Isaac death (180y)

 

2227

Joseph begins power (30y)

 

2236

Joseph reunited (Jacob is 130y)

 

2253

Jacob death (147y)

 

2307

Joseph death (110y)

 

2586

Moses birth (80y before Exodus)

 

2666

Exodus (430y after reunion of Joseph and Jacob; Moses = 80, Joshua = 40)

last year of Phiops, 4th king, 6th Egypt Dyn, Memphis)

2706

Moses death (120)

 

2711

crossing Jordon (Joshua = 85)

 

2725

 

Babylonian dyn 12 kings (300y)

2736

dividing land, beginning of lead by Judges (Joshua = 110)

 

2765

 

Khammurabi (23y)

3062

King Saul

 

3102

King David begins reign

 

 

 

 

Levi had three sons: Gershon, Kohath and Merari. Kohath had four sons, the first of which was Amram who married his father's sister Jochebed. Amram had Aaron, Moses and Miriam. Aaron died at 123y in the 40th year after the Israelites left Egypt (Numbers 33:38-39). Moses died at 120y at the end of the 40-year wandering but before the Israelites entered the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 34:7).

 

After Moses died, Joshua led the people across the Jordan (Numbers 1:1, 32:11). Joshua was 40y at the beginning of the wandering (Numbers 33:38, Exodus 17:1,10), and 85y when he led the people across the Jordan (Joshua 14:10). After a 25-year battle to subdue and take possession of all the lands on the other side of the Jordan, the lands were divided among the 12 tribes as their inheritance from God and Joshua died at 110y (Joshua 24:29).

 

The time of the Judges begins with the death of Joshua. King Saul follows them and King David succeeds Saul. Table 2.3 shows the time order from Abram to the beginning of King David's reign in years relative to Adam's birth.

 

2.1.4 Period 4: King David To The Babylonian Exile


During this period, the Jews were ruled by a succession of kings, the first of which was David. (The first king of the Israelites, Saul, follows the judges in the previous time period). The beginning of the reign of David in time is keyed to two events: the Exodus and the building of the temple by Solomon.

 

 

Table 2.4. This shows the relative year (RY) of King David to the

Babylonian Exile is in column 1. Section 2.2 identifies the time of the

Egyptian and Babylonian kings relative to the kings of Israel.

Year

RY

David Line

(length of reign yr)

Sumerian King

(length of reign yr)

3102

King David (40y)

 

3142

Solomon (40y)

 

3182

Rehoboam (17y)

 

3199

Abijah (3y)

 

3202

Asu (41y)

 

3243

Jehoshaphat (25y)

 

3268

Jehoram (8y)

 

3276

Ahaziah (1y)

 

3277

Athaliah (6y)

 

3283

Joash (40y)

 

3323

Amaziah (29y)

 

3352

Azariah (52y)

 

3404

Jotham (16y)

 

3420

Ahaz (16y)

 

3436

Hezekiah (29y)

King Bakdan of Babylon?

3465

Manasseh (55y)

 

3520

Amon (2y)

 

3522

Josiah (31y)

 

3553

Jehoahaz (3mo)

 

3553

Jehoiakim (11y)

Pharaoh-ne'-choh of Egypt?

3561

 

Nebuchadnezzar

3564

Jehoiachin (3mo)

Evilmerodach of Babylon?

3565

besiege of Jerusalem

4th year of reign

 

 

 

In the 4th year of his reign, which was 480 years after the Exodus, Solomon began the temple (1 Kings 11:42). King David reigned 40 years and was succeeded by Solomon (1 Kings 2 :11-12). So 480 - 4 - 40 = 436 years after the Exodus is the beginning of David's reign. During the period from David to the exile to Babylon, there were 21 kings in Jerusalem spanning 463 years (beginning with Rehoboam: 1 Kings 14:21, 15:2,15:9-11, 22:42; 2 Kings 8:17,8:26, 11:3, 12:1, 14:2, 15:2, 15:33, 16:2, 18:2, 21:1, 21:19. 22:1, 23:31, 23:36, 24:8-11).

An absolute timeline (calibrated BC date) is not identified here. All years are relative to the birth of Adam, but specific mention of named kings of Egypt and Babylon help in correlating relative and calibrated time. For example, the Bible reports (2 Kings 20:12) that Berodachbaladan, son of King Bakdan of Babylon heard of the illness of the Israeli King Hezekiah (3436-3465 RY). Further it says (2 Kings 23:34) that the Egyptian Pharaoh-ne'-choh made Jehoiakim king of Israel when he carried Jehoahaz to Egypt. There Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 24:1) made Jehoiakim his servant for 3 years some time before the revolt and siege of Jerusalem.

 

Table 2.4 shows the time order from the beginning of King David's reign to the Babylonian Exile in years relative to Adam's birth. The next period shows there in an ambiguity in the timeline associated with the length of the Exile. Correlating the relative time of these kings' interactions with the BC calibrated dates of the named Egyptian and Babylonian kings allows that ambiguity to be resolved later in Section 2.2.

 

2.1.5 Period 5: Babylonian Exile To The Birth Of Jesus


Over a period of many years, Nebuchadnezzar and his servants and allies besieged Jerusalem. Over a period of about 15 years, Jews were carried to Babylon on three occasions: during the 7-8th year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign (2 Kings 24:12-16, Jeremiah 2:28-), during the 18-19th year(2 Kings 25:8-11, Jeremiah 2:28), and again in his 23rd year(Jeremiah 2:28). The Bible says that Jehoiachin was carried to prison in Babylon (2 Kings 24:12-16) during the first of these periods.

In the 19th year of his reign, Nebuchadnezzar burned the temple (2 Kings 25:8). Later, during the first year of his reign, King Evilmerodach of Babylon released Jehoiachin from prison after 37 years (2 Kings 25:27). However, this release did not mark the end of the exile.

In the first year of his reign, Cyrus of Persia proclaimed the temple would be rebuilt and the captives returned (2 Chron. 36:22, Ezra 1:1-2, Ezra 2:1). It is not clear if all of the captives returned at this time for the temple rebuilding. However, this point is generally considered the end of the exile. The temple rebuilding was completed during the 6th year of Darius (Ezra 6:15), and the rebuilding of Jerusalem was begun in the 20th year of Artaxerxes (Nehemiah 2:1).

Table 2.5 shows the time order from the beginning of King Hezekiah of Israel to the birth of Jesus. On this table year to the beginning of the Exile are in years relative to Adam's birth. Year after the end of the Exile are calibrated BC dates.

 

 

Table 2.5. This shows the relative year (RY) of the Babylonian Exile to the birth of Jesus is in

column 1.

Year

BC

Year

RY

Exile Line

(ages yr)

Occupying King

(ruling country)

 

3436

King Hezekiah (29y)

- 15th king on Table 2.4

Bakdan (Babylon)

 

3553

King Jehoiakim (11y)

Pharaoh-ne'-choh (Egypt)

 

3561

 

Nebuchadnezzar I (Babylon)

 

3569

beginning of Exile

1st wave of exile;

8th year of reign

 

 

3580

2nd wave of exile; temple burned; 19th year of reign

 

 

3583

3rd wave of exile; 23rd year of reign

 

 

3606

Jehoiachin released from prison; after 37 yrs.; 1st year of reign

Evilmerodach

 

?

 

?

 

intermediate time of Exile

questionable length of time to be determined by cross correlation of kings named in Bible

 

 

 

539

 

end of Exile

fall of Babylon to Persians; proclamation to rebuild temple; return of exiles; 1st year of reign

Cyrus the Great (Persian/Babylon)

526

 

temple building completed; 6th year of reign

Darius I (Persian/Babylon)

445

 

rebuilding of Jerusalem begun; 20th year of reign

Artaxerxes I (Persian/Babylon)

168

 

sacrificial worship in temple abolished

Antiochus IV (Syrian)

164

 

Maccabeaus re-conquered Jerusalem ; Maccabean dynasty reign until the Roman conquest

 

63

 

Roman conquest of Egypt

 

6

 

birth of Jesus

Caesar Augustus (Roman Emperor

27 BC - 44 AD) , Herod the Great

(Vassal to Rome 34 BC - 4 BC)

 

 

 

In determining the relative timeline, there is still the question of the length of the exile. This ambiguity marks the transition from the relative years before the exile to the calibrated years after the exile.

 

There appears to be some question about the total length of the exile. The Bible says (2 Chron. 36:21), "To fulfill the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah until the land had enjoyed her Sabbaths: for as long as she lay desolate she kept Sabbath, to fulfill three score and ten years" , i.e., (3x20 + 10 = 70). Jeremiah lived from before the fall of Jerusalem and thru the reign of Nebuchadnezzar. He prophesied "And the whole land shall be a desolation, and an astonishment; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years"(Jeremiah 25:14).

 

However, later Daniel, in the 1st year of the reign of Darius, prophesied (Daniel 11-12:) the fall of Babylon and other foreign control over Jerusalem to come before the end of the exile. He said "... and he (Babylon) shall come to his end, and one shall help him"(Daniel 11:7); "... and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book"(Daniel 12:1); "... How long shall it be to the end ... , and sware by him that liveth forever that it shall be for a time, times, and an half ..." (Daniel 12: 6-7). Some interpretation of this put the number of years of the exile at 490 years (70 years where each day of the year is really one week long giving the number of conventional 365-day years as 70 x 7). Section 2.2 provides the final calibration and resolution of the exile length.

 

There is a question of the lifetime of Daniel relative to the length of the Exile. Daniel is referred to at the beginning of the Exile and again at the end indicating he lived through the entire period. With the new timeline that would give him a lifetime similar to the pre-flood patriarchs. Resolving this issue is left to later studies.

 

Finally, the New Testament provides the genealogy of Jesus (Fig. 2.4), and tells of His birth as: "Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king ..." (Matthew 2:1); "And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus ..." (Luke 2:1-4). The exact date of Jesus birth is a matter of much debate, but most agree on 4-6 BC (3). The earlier year of 6 BC is used here. This gives the last year in the calibrated part of the timeline. Using all of the relative events and the "known" dated events, the next section proceeds to provide calibrated BC years for the relative events.

 

 

 

:1 Jesus son of David son of Abraham

:2 Abram (begat) -> Isaac -> Jacob -> Jacob -> Judas

:3 Judas -> Phares -> Esram -> Aram

:4-5 Aram ->Aminadab -> Naason -> Salmon -> Boaz -> Obed -> Jesse

:6-7 Jesse -> David -> Solomon -> Roboam -> Abia -> Asa

:8-9 Asa -> Josaphat -> Joram -> Ozias -> Joatham -> Achaz ->Ezekias

:10 Ezekias -> Manasses ->Amon -> Josias

:11 Josias -> Jechonias - at that time they were carried away to Babylon

:12-13 after they were brought to Babylon

Jechonias -> Salathel -> Zorobabel -> Abiud -> Eliakim -> Azor

:14-15 Azor -> Sadoc -> Achim -> Eliud -> Eleazar -> Matthon -> Jacob

:16 Jacob -> Joseph and Mary -> Jesus

 

Figure 2.4 This is the genealogy of Jesus as provided in Matthew 1:1-18. The genealogy

states in verse 1 that Jesus descends from David who descends from Abram (who is also

known as Abraham). From verse 2 onward it states that Abram was the father of Isaac

who was the father of Jacob. By verse 16 it states that Mary and Joseph descended from

Jacob (different from the Jacob in verse 2).

 

 

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2.2. The Calibration Of The Ancient Timeline

 

To produce a calibrated (BC date) timeline, back to the earliest events, it is necessary to compare the relative years of the biblical events and the "known" dates of reign of the Egyptian and Babylonian kings named in the Bible. This process is not as simple as one might imagine.

 

Both the Egyptians and the Sumerian/Babylonian king lines have lists of their respective kings from near the birth of Jesus back several thousand years. The farther back in time one goes, the more uncertain the date. For example, the historic time of Persian rule in Egypt (Dynasty 31: 33 - 323 BC) is fairly well known and accepted. Even back as far as Darius (521 - 486 BC) and Cyrus the Great (539 - 529 BC) is not too contested. However, dates much earlier than this have many questions associated with them. It is the collection of these lists that we must use to connect relative biblical time to historical (calibrated, BC) date.

 

In ancient times, relative time is based on the year of reign of a particular king in the ordered longer list of kings. However, record keeping of the lists was not centralized or tightly controlled. Duplicate lists in the different city-states that were updated to the particular city-state's pride and advantage (as is generally agreed happened) could be misinterpreted as being one longer master list with many more sequentially reigning kings rather than the more likely situation of some number of concurrent rulers.

 

Making such a longer master list has the unintended consequence of expanding the number of years of reign in the total historical context. The accurate determination of the co-regencies and the proper shrinking of the elapsed time to its more likely actual length is notoriously difficulty to do. For example, the currently accepted extent of the Egyptian line of kings(4) goes from ~33 BC, when the Romans took control over Egypt, back to the first king of the first Egyptian dynasty (Menes) at c.3100 BC (with an uncertainty of a few hundred years). This traditional time-span and event dating is referred to as the Standard TimeLine (STL) for the following discussions.

 

For the purpose here, the STL includes lists of both the Egyptian, as well as, the Sumerian/Babylonian king. Before proceeding with the RABMEC calibration, we begin with a description of the Egyptian kings' lists.

 

One of the most detailed compilations of the Egyptian kings' lists, from early times, was recorded by Manetho Selemnytus for Pharaoh Ptolemy Philadelphus in the 3rd century BC. It lists 31 dynasties. There are various surviving versions that have anywhere from 421 to 533 kings spanning 4937 to 5383 years. There is also a period that includes pre-dynastic and mythical kings that go back an additional ~25,000 years to the Egyptian beginning of the world.

 

Manetho's list serves as one source for what is known about the Egyptian king line (5). Although considered valuable, the reliability of Manetho's sources faces some uncertainty. A second source comes from a list made by the Sothis priest/astronomers in Egypt. They tried to correct the kings' years of reign for astronomical events - specifically the rising of the star Sirius. The Sothis list covers the time from Menes to the end of Manetho's 26th dynasty. Assuming Manetho's 27th thru 31st dynasty lists are acceptably accurate, the Sothis version (plus Manetho's 27th -31st dynasties) gives 105 kings spanning 2357 years. This list and time span is much closer to the accepted STL span.

 

A complication in any list is the uncertainty in the length of reign of each king. The uncertainty in years results from the methods of recording the number of years as writing and symbol representation evolved, damage to tablets, and comparison of duplicate lists from competing city-states that in some cases have different times.

 

Another complication is an ambiguity in the kings' names. This ambiguity results from the fact that the kings each had several names (a given one, an official one, and additional ones indicating the divine relations of the king).

 

For the purpose of the timeline presented here, a sequential kings list is made based on Manetho's list, using the Sothis list to identify duplications. The RABMEC contracts the total time span by about 460 years compared to the STL, placing Menes at 2638 BC by counting backward from the most recent, "reliable" date (Appendix B).

 

The Sumerian kings' list (6, 2), extended to include their successors in the region, the Babylonian kings (7, 8), share all of the difficulties of the Egyptian lists. The new timeline uses a kings list (Appendix A) based on Kramer (6), Waddell (2) , Berossos (7) and Oppenheimer (8).

 

One of the most interesting features of the Sumerian list is the flood, which is taken as identical with the biblical Flood. Mythology scholars generally accept equating these two floods. The historian, Waddell (2), uses this "fact" to allow a direct connection between the Sumerian and Hebrew traditions. Further, Waddell proposed that Menes of the Egyptian line is identical with Manishtushu, son of Sargon I of the Sumerian line. This allows a connection between the Sumerian and Egyptian line. Both of these assumptions are used in the new timeline.

 

The final refinement of the Egyptian and the Sumerian/Babylonian king list in the two appendices was achieved by cross correlating the connections between the Egyptian and Sumerian/Babylonian kings with the biblical references. These cross correlations are used to reconstruct an alternate calibrated timeline referred to as the RABMEC.

 

One added consideration in the correlations is the fact that each of the Egyptian kings (and to a lesser extent the Sumerian kings) had more than one name: a given name, an official king name, and several names representing their divine relationship. There is also the question of the phonology of the recorders (the ability of a group to reproduce sounds).

 

For example, it is well know that some oriental groups pronounce the English standard "r" as "l"; and, certain New Englanders drop the "r" and pronounce it as "ah". This difference in hearing and pronunciation - and by extension - written characterization can lead to ambiguities in the representation of one king's name by another nation, especially in the absence of a standardized dictionary. This can make absolute identification ambiguous in some significant cases that are discussed in the coming timeline reconstruction.

 

The final calibration of the RABMEC was achieved by addressing the following questions relating Israel's kings and events to the Egyptian and Babylonian kings. The Bible identifies several kings that interacted with the Hebrews. These include: the unnamed pharaoh at the time of the Exodus, the Babylonian King Bakdan at the time if the Israeli King Hezekiah, the Pharaoh-ne'-choh who enslaved the Israeli King Jehoiakin, the Babylonian King Evilmerodach who released King Jehoiachin, and the son of the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar who sacked Jerusalem.

 

Identifying these kings provides a BC calibrated year that can be equated with the relative year of the as yet un-calibrated new timeline. The year of each king should be found on the kings' lists in Appendices A and B. However, because of the name ambiguity problem discussed above, exactly matching those five kings with a name on the kings' list requires some consideration. The answers to the questions below provide the necessary identification of which Egyptian and Babylonian kings in the list really are the kings to which the Bible refers.

 

2.2.1 Who Was Pharaoh In Egypt During The Exodus?

 

The first Egyptian king of the first dynasty was Menes at RY 2260 (relative to the birth of Adam) (c.3100 BC by the STL). For future reference, the Sothis Book of Egyptian Kings has Menes as the first king at 2776 AM. "AM" means year of the world although the exact meaning of this term is unclear.

 

The Exodus occurred at RY 2666, and the time between the Exodus and Nebuchadnezzar of the Babylonian exile is (RY 2666 - RY 3596) 903 years. However, the Bible does not name the king at the time of the Exodus. It only names two treasure cities that were built by the Hebrew slaves. The treasure cities, Pithom and Ramesses were named after two pharaohs, the namesakes of the cities, but the actual names of the pharaohs are unspecified.

 

There is confusion among biblical scholars as to the Exodus pharaoh and date. One view has Ramesses II as Pharaoh during Exodus (19th Dynasty, c. 1213 - 1199 BC), who is directly preceded by Sethos. It is assumed he is one of the namesakes. There is no identified candidate for the second treasure city, Pithom. This pharaoh also leaves the question of Nebuchadnezzar's date ambiguous.

 

Another view places the Exodus much earlier. Assuming Nebuchadnezzar II, who began his reign in ~605 BC, is responsible for the Babylonian exile, the year of the Exodus as 1508 BC (605 BC + 903 yrs).

 

If the correct Exodus date is 1508 BC, the Exodus pharaoh would have been from the 17th (Shepherd) dynasty, and Aphophis or Bnon would have ruled. The conversion of Bnon to Pithom is easy with small shifts in pronunciation or character interpretation (Bnon -> Pnon -> Pithon -> Pithom). In comparing different versions of the kings' lists, the "on" ending on some names is also recorded as "om" for several equated kings, and vowels are often un-represented or ambiguous. This would allow Bnon to be the namesake of the treasure city Pithom, and one of the Ramesses of the Sothis Rammessid 14th dynasty directly preceding Bnon's rule to be the namesake of the other treasure city (Ramesses) in the Bible.

 

The proposed RABMEC, on the other hand, indicates an even earlier date for the Exodus (2103 BC) based on relative times from Adam. Phiops (4th king, 6th Dynasty, 2164 - 2103 BC) reigned sufficiently long to have been the pharaoh during the Exodus. Also, by the RABMEC, pharaohs of the 1st and 2nd Egyptian dynasties reigned (RY 2131 - 2315) during Joseph's life (RY 2197 - 2307), and from then to Phiops, 13 kings of the 3rd thru most of the 6th dynasties would have reigned - consistent with a new king that didn't know Joseph when the bondage started. Also small shifts could account for the different spelling of the pharaoh's name (Phiops -> Pihops -> Pithops -> Pithom) making Phiops the namesake of one of the treasure cities. Recall the bible does not name the pharaoh, only the two treasure cities. This leaves us with the question of the second treasure city, Ramesses, which would have been for a previous pharaoh.

 

According to the Sumerian/Babylonian Kings list, the Babylonian King Sargon I had a son, Manishtushu. The historian, Waddell, claims this son is the same Menes who was the first Egyptian dynastic king. If Menes is Manishtushu of Sumer, then Rimush, the preceding Sumerian king who was brother to Manishtushu and co-ruler of Egypt during their father's reign, is likely the namesake of the second treasure city. The similarity between Ri-mu-sh(es) and Ra-me-sses can hardly be a coincidence. It is possible that the treasure city of Ramesses was really built for Rimush of Sumer while he was co-ruler.

 

So far, both the STL (with Bnon and Ramesses for the namesakes of the two treasure cities) and, the RABMEC (with Phiops and Rimush for the namesakes of the treasure cities) seem to satisfy the stated biblical events. However, further comparisons are possible to help select between the two possibilities.

 

2.2.2 Who Was The King Bakdan Coincident With King Hezekiah?

 

King Bakdan is the second king that we consider who interacted with the kings of Israel. According to the Bible (2 Kings 20:12), Berodachbaladan, son of King Bakdan of Babylon heard that Hezekiah was sick. The bible does not specify at what time during the reign of Hezekiah the event took place. It is also not specified whether Hezekiah was still king when Berodachbaladan succeeded his father (immediately or after several intervening kings). The question considered here is whether it is possible to identify Bakdan or Berodachbaladan and locate them in time.

 

We can place in relative time both Hezekiah (RY 3436 - RY 3465) and Nebuchadnezzar (RY 3561) who besieged Jerusalem. We know that the interaction with Berodachbaladan took place during Hezekiah's reign but before Nebuchadnezzar's. We know Berodachbaladan's interaction could have been as early as Hezekiah's first year (125 years before Nebuchadnezzar) or as late as his last year (96 years before Nebuchadnezzar). It is necessary at this time to try to distinguish between Nebuchadnezzar I and Nebuchadnezzar II.

 

The STL assumes the king of the siege was Nebuchadnezzar II. The STL has Nebuchadnezzar II at 605 BC, and between 96 and 125 years earlier (701 - 730 BC) there were eight Babylonian kings. One, Marduk-apla-iddna II (722 - 710 BC), traditionally has been identified as Merodach-Baladan (Berodach - baladan) who reigned from 117 - 105 years before Nebuchadnezzar II. His immediate predecessor, Shalmaneser V (729 - 727 BC) began his reign 122 years before Nebuchadnezzar II and so would have been king during Hezekiah's reign. None of the preceding kings have a name that sounds like Bakdan (or Baladan), but given the multiple names for the kings any one of them could have been Berodachbaladan's father.

 

The RABMEC hypothesizes the king of the siege is Nebuchadnezzar I. Nebuchadnezzar I is the fourth king of the Isin dynasty (RY 3561). There were several kings between 96 and 125 years earlier (RY 3436 - 3465) who could have been Bakdan. One, Marduk-apla-iddina I (RY 34444 - 3456) reigned 117 - 105 years before Nebuchadnezzar I. By coincidence, his ("1st of that name") years of reign and years preceding Nebuchadnezzar I are the same as those of the "2nd of that name" relative to Nebuchadnezzar II (the pair of kings identified by the STL).

 

The RABMEC pair (1st of the names) satisfy the RY (counting foreword from Adam being the same as the first Sumerian king), while the STL pair ("2nd of the same names"), satisfy the RY (counting backward from the birth of Jesus) giving a disparity of ~603 years between the two pairs. Both pairs satisfy the RY from Adam. Thus, either the "1st of the name" or the "2nd of the name" could be the Berodachbaladan who interacted with Hezekiah. While still the son of the king during the reign of Hezekiah, Berodachbaladan became king in his own right after the death of Hezekiah - leaving the question of explaining the 603 year difference in the calibrated timeline.

 

2.2.3 Who Was The Pharaoh-ne'-choh Coincident With King Jehoiakin?

 

The Bible reports (2 Kings 23:34) that Pharaoh-ne'-choh made Jehoiakin king when he carried Jehoahaz to Egypt as his prisoner. Again this event preceded Nebuchadnezzar and the siege of Jerusalem. From the relative timeline, we know Nebuchadnezzar was at RY 3561 and Jehoiakin began his reign at RY 3553.

 

By the STL, Nebuchadnezzar II began his reign in 605 BC (to 562 BC), and from the Egyptian Kings List, there are three kings in the 26th dynasty that have a name that qualifies: #2 - Nekhepsos (640 - 634 BC), #3 - Nekhao I (634 - 626 BC) and #5 - Nehkao II (512 - 603 BC). So, Nehkao II appears to satisfy the timing of the event.

 

By the RABMEC, Nebuchadnezzar I began his reign RY 3561 (1208 - 1185 BC), and from the Egyptian Kings List, the 2nd king of the 19th dynasty, Nekhepsos, reigned from RY 3542 - 3561 (1227 - 1208 BC). The two reigns overlapped in the year RY 3561, satisfying the timing, and so Nekhepsos could well be the Pharaoh-ne'-choh.

 

2.2.4 Who Is King Evilmerodach Who Released King Jehoiachin?

 

King Evilmerodach is the third king that we consider who interacted with the kings of Israel. The Bible reports (2 Kings 25:27) that during the 1st year of his reign King Evilmerodach of Babylon released Jehoiachin from prison after 37 years. We also know that the first wave of the exile, which included Jehoiachin, occurred during the 8th year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign. So 45 after Nebuchadnezzar began his reign, Evilmerodach was king of Babylon, although, the bible does not record whether Evilmerodach was the immediate successor or a later one.

 

By the STL, Nebuchadnezzar II began his reign in 605 BC and 45 years later would have been 560 BC According to the Babylonian Kings List, Nebuchadnezzar II reigned 43 years (605 - 562 BC) and was immediately succeeded by Amei-Marduk (562 - 560 BC), and he was followed by Nergal-shar-usur (560 - 556 BC). It is possible that one of this second king's name was Marduk, and so a corruption of the name becomes (Nergal-(shar-usur) [Marduk] -> (N)e(r)gal Marduk -> Eval Marduk -> Evilmerodach) the king in question.

 

By the RABMEC, Nebuchadnezzar I (RY 3561) reigned for 23 years, and 45 years from the beginning of his reign is RY 3606. It is interesting to note that the bible describes the third wave of the exile as having occurred during the 23rd year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign (Jeremiah 2:28) and makes no further mention of him (even though by the STL assumption he would have continued to reign an additional 22 years). From the Babylonian Kings List, 45 years after Nebuchadnezzar I began his reign we have Marduk-shapik-zeri (RY 3605 - 3618). This king satisfies the event in question since it took place 45 years after Nebuchadnezzar and in the 1st year of the reign of King Evilmerodach. With a corruption of the name (Marduk-(sh)apik-(zeri) -> Marduk-apil -> Marduk-avil -> Evilmerodach), this king could be the king Evilmerodach.

 

2.2.5 Who Was Nebuchadnezzar's Son?

 

Finally, Nebuchadnezzar's Son is the fourth king that we consider who interacted with the kings of Israel. The Bible reports (Daniel 5: 1-2) that Belshazzar the king made a great feast and used the vessels which his father Nebuchadnezzar had taken from the temple.

 

By the STL, the second king to succeed Nebuchadnezzar II was Nergal-sharezer which is easily corrupted ( (Ner)gal-sharezer -> Bal-sha(re)zer -> Belshazzar). It is interesting to note that this same king would have been identified by the name of Evilmerodach assuming all the years are not too questionable.

 

By the RABMEC, the situation is similar. In this case, a corruption of the third king's name ( (Mar)duk-sha(pik)-zer(i) -> Dal-shazer -> Balshazer -> Belshazzar) also produces the son's name; and, as with the STL, the son is also identified with the king that released Jehoiachin assuming the years are not too questionable.

 

2.2.6 The Reconstructed Historical Part of the RABMEC

 

It is clear that comparing the named kings in the bible provides two alternatives that satisfy the requirements for either timeline. We compare both alternatives in the table. The two timelines are reconciled with "known" history only at the most recent calibrated time. The STL determines calibrated time using the relative years between events and assuming a 70-year exile, and counts backwards from known dates. The RABMEC uses relative years between events (the same for either timeline, plus or minus a few). It counts foreword assuming Adam is the Sumerian king Unzi, leaving the exile length to vary, and pegging known dates for the well-established dates. We note that times more recent than ~748 BC are considered well established from Ptolemy's Canon of Kings, but before that, dates and chronologies are not totally certain (identified in the table by the "c." preceding the date).

 

For the RABMEC, RY 2131 equals 2638 BC (the date of Menes from the calibrated Egyptian Kings list (Appendix B). With this benchmark, the length of the exile becomes 665 years. This is consistent with prediction of the prophet Daniel who indicated that the time to the return of all of the exiled "... shall be for a time, times, and a half ...". The RABMEC estimate exceeds the 490 year interpretation by some (70 years of weeks = 70 years x 7 days per week). However, if one assumes "a time" = 70, and "times and a half" = a week and a half (7 + 3 days), then Daniels prediction could be interpreted as 70 years x 10 = 735 years.

 

We assume the exile extended from the beginning of the first wave to the traditional calibrated time of Cyrus (i.e., giving 665 years for the RABMEC instead of the 70 years of the STL). Thus, the RABMEC has an approximately 600 years for the exile length. Note that if it took 70 additional years to return all of the exiled, the total time would be 665 + 70 = 735 years as predicted by Daniel. Further, the extra 600 years in the RABMEC places the Flood much earlier for RABMEC (3113 BC) than the STL (2294 BC). Using this information, we now do the final correlation shown in Table 2.6.

 

 

Table 2.6. This is a comparison of the two timelines (the STL, and the new RABMEC) for the biblical events. Columns 1-3 show the reigning kings during the RABMEC where they differ from the kings and STL (columns 5-7) times for the given events in column 4. Note, the RY are from the birth of Adam at RY = 0.

RABMEC

Event

STL

RY

BC

Note

Note

BC

RY

0

4769

 

Adam birth

 

3950

0

600

4169

 

Adam = Unzi

1st Sumer king

 

 

 

1008

3761

 

start of Jewish calendar

 

3761

192

1656

3113

 

Flood

 

2294

1656

1946

2823

 

Abraham birth

 

2001

1949

2131

2638

Manishtushu of Sumer = Menes

Menes of Egypt

c. 3100 BC

 

 

2307

2462

 

Joseph death

 

1640

2310

2666

2103

Phiops pharaoh

Exodus

Ramesses (II?)

1496

2454

3102

1667

 

King David

 

1060

2890

3561

1208

1st of name

c. 1126 BC STL

Nebuchadnezzar

2nd of name

606

3346

3565

1204

 

Jerusalem besieged

beginning of Exile

606

3346

3569

1200

beginning of Exile

1st wave of exile

 

 

 

 

 
3580

1189

 

2nd wave of exile

 

 

 

3583

1186

 

3rd wave of exile

 

 

 

3606

1163

Marduk-

shapik-zeri

c. 1082 BC STL

Evilmerodach release Jehoiachin after 37 yr; 45 yr after Nebuchadnezzar

Nergal-

shar-usur (sharezer)

560

3391

4230

539

Exile ends

665 yrs from 1st wave)

Cyrus begins temple rebuilding

Exile ends 70 yr from siege of Jerusalem)

536

3412

4243

526

 

Darius completes temple

 

526

3425

4763

6

 

Jesus birth

 

6

3945

 

 

 

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2.3 References for Chapter 2

 

1 The Holy Bible, King James Version, Thomas Nelson Pub. (1990)

2 L.A. Waddell, Makers Of Civilization In Race And History, London (1929), (Kessinger

Pub. reprint)

3 M. R. Molnar, The Star of Bethlehem, Rutgers Univ. Press, NJ (1999)

4 T.G.H. James, A Short History of Ancient Egypt, The Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, MD (1995)

5 E.A.Wallis Budge, The Book of the Kings of Egypt Part One, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co, LTD, London (1908)

6 S.N. Kramer, The Sumerian Their History, Culture, and Character, Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago (1963)

7 G.P. Verbrugghe and J.M. Wickersham, Bosseros and Manetho Introduced and Translated: Native Traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, Univ. of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor (2001)

8 A.L. Oppenheimer, Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization, Univ. of Chicago Press (1977)

 

 

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